 Direct Current and Voltage : Complete Detail About DC Voltage and Current - Electrical Diary -->

# Direct Current and Voltage : Complete Detail About DC Voltage and Current

Before going to talk about the Direct current and Alternating Current, it is essential to know about what is current? Because once the Concept about current is clear then it will be easy to differentiate between Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC).

### Definition of Electric Current

The rate of flow of Charge through a given cross-section of a given conductor is called Electric Current. In Short movement of charge with a constant velocity is called electric current.

### Explanation of Electric Current

Electric is a form of energy. The fundamental particle of electrical energy is treated as a charge. The charge is the property of any material. While utilizing electrical energy it is required to flow energy from Energy sources (Battery, Generator, Solar Panel, etc.) to Energy Consumers like (Electric Bulb, Resistor, Electric Motor, etc.).During this process according to the demand for energy consumer energy carriers i.e charges start to flow to carry electrical energy from Source to Consumer. This flow of electric charge is called the flow of electric current. if there is no movement of charge, there is no flow of current and thus there is no flow of electric energy. Now it is very clear that the movement of the charged particles will allow the flowing of electric current. Movement of charged particle either it may be periodic or linear.

### Types of Electric Current

While studying the nature and another effect of charge particle We assume charge can get only two types of motion (1) Periodic Motion (2) Linear Motion

#### (1) Periodic Motion

If the Charge Particle has a periodic motion then Current Flowing due to this charge will also be periodic and this type of electric current is called Alternating Current(AC). Because this current will repeat its motion after a regular interval of time .this interval of time is called a period and how many times it is repeating itself in one second is called frequency. The amplitude of the Alternating current is a function of time because it is time depending.

#### (2) Linear Motion

if the charged particle is moving linearly with a constant velocity then the Current flowing due to this movement of the Charge will also be constant with respect to time. this type of electric current is called Direct CurrentDirect Current has no period of time. Hence it has no frequency. The amplitude of Direct Current is independent of time so it is not a function of time.

### Concept of Voltage: Complete Detail

The potential energy of an object with respect to ground is expressed by a well-known formula

E= MgH

where

M = Mass of the Object
g = Gravity
H = Hight of the Object with respect to the Reference (In our Case Earth Surface it is taken as Reference)

Since the Water tank is kept on the top of the Flat hence its potential Energy will be high as compared to other flor and the Potential Energy of Ground Flor will be Zero (H=0)
From fluid mechanics we know that  Where is more energy difference, their rate of flow of fluid will be more.
As Potential Energy difference between ground flor and the water tank is more because (MgH -0 = 0) Hence speed of water flow will be maximum at ground level and as we move on second flor, let height from the ground of Second Flor is h1

then the Energy difference is (Mgh - Mgh1) will be no zero so the Speed of water flow is slightly less as compared to the ground floor and it will decrease as we move on third forth and so on.

this is example gives us a very clear idea about the rate of flow of fluid due to a change in potential energy difference. As water is flowing through the pipe due to the potential Energy difference,electric Current flow similar to water in the conductor. In the case of electric Current the Potential Energy Difference is called Potential Difference .if Potential Difference will be more, the Rate of flow of electric charge will be more. Potential Energy of Water tank is called Potential and it is measure in Volt .if this Potential energy is divided by the height of the Flat then it is treated as Voltage.

### Voltage In case of Electric Energy

The Potential Energy of electric Charge with respect to a given reference is called Voltage or Potential Practically. But theoretically, Potential or Voltage is defined as the amount of work done by a  positive unit charge particle ( Which is situated at infinity ) against another positive charge particle. This amount of work done per unit meter is measure in Volt.

### AC Voltage

if the charged particle is in periodic motion then the potential energy associated with it with respect to a given reference is called AC Voltage. It will also measure in Volt.

### DC Voltage

The Potential Energy Associated with a static charge is called DC Voltage. Voltage is also measured in Volt.

### Is Direct Current (DC) is Oscillatory?

The answer to this question is false. Ideally, it is not possible that a Direct Current is oscillatory.