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Kirchhoff's Law: Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff's voltage Law(KVL)

Kirchhoff's laws are very helpful in determining the equivalent resistance of a complex network and the current flowing in the various branches of the network. 

In the year 1845, Kirchhoff at the age of 23 published his paper regarding two basics laws for solving the electrical circuit. these two laws are known as Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) or Kirchhoff's voltage law(KVL)

Kirchhoff's Current Law: Kirchhoff's Current  Law Definition


This law is applicable at a node of the network which is a junction of two or more branches of that network. this law state that the algebraic sum of the current flowing towards a node is equal to the sum of current flowing away from that node, that is in any network the algebraic sum of currents in all the branches meeting at the node is zero.

 Kirchoff's current law is based on the conservation of current. While applying the Kirchoff current law a sign convention is taken under consideration. if we take entering current as positive then outgoing current from the node is taken as positive and vice versa.

Sum of entering current = Sum of leaving current

Kirchhoff's Voltage LawKirchhoff's Voltage Law Definition

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Kirchoff's voltage law states that the total potential rise in any closed path is equal to the total potential drop in that path. In another way, the Algebraic or vector sum of voltage around any closed path in a circuit is always zero.

 While applying Kirchoff voltage law a proper sign convention is adopted that is the voltage of the source in the circuit is if taken as positive then other voltage raise across the circuit element is taken as negative and vice-versa. The basis of Kirchoff voltage law is based on the principle of conservation of energy.

Sum of Potential Drop  = Sum of Potential Raise

From the above-given circuit, we can write KVL Equation like this 


V = VR1 +VR2 +VR3
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