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Atomic Structure : A brief of atom structure by Electricaldiary

According to Neil Bohr, the structure of the atom is planetary. The center of the atom has a region called the nucleus and in this nucleus, protons and neutrons coexist. This central part can be understood by the sun And electrons revolve around the nucleus like planets.

In a normal atom, only electrons and protons are charged particles and their numbers are equal. Apart from these two particles, there is also a neutron which has no charge of any kind. Therefore, an atom in the normal state is neutral. The number of protons in an atom is called an atomic number. The sum of the number of protons and neutrons is called Atomic Weight.
Electrons orbiting around the nucleus are in a fixed distance and a fixed orbit from the nucleus. Which is called orbit or shell. The number of electrons in each orbit is fixed. Normally an orbit can have a maximum of 2n electrons where n is the number of the orbit. That is, the maximum number of electrons in the first orbit (n = 1) will be 2×12= 2.

Being a certain distance from the nucleus, the energy of each orbit is also fixed. The closer the orbit is to the nucleus, the more strongly it is attracted to the nucleus. And the electrons in this orbit are also bound to the same nucleus. 

Conversely, the farther away from the orbital nucleus, the less its attraction to the nucleus and the electrons in this orbit are bound to the nucleus with less force, the attraction of the nucleus on these electrons decreases. Because these electrons are free to move freely inside the atom, they are responsible for the electrical conduction by the electron atom.

In the exception of rule 2nstated above, the last orbit of an atom can have a maximum of 8 electrons. The electron in the last orbit of an atom is called Valence electron and the last orbit is called the Valence shell.

 The energy that binds any electron to the nucleus is called Binding Energy. The more the electron remains away from the nucleus, the higher its energy and the higher the energy, the electron is bound to the nucleus with less force. 


That is, the energy of electrons close to the nucleus is less and the energy of electrons present in the Valence shell is more. Due to the high energy of the electron present in the Valence shell, very little energy is required to get it out of the orbit of the atom.

When an atom receives energy from an external energy source, the energy of the orbit of the atom increases. This also increases the energy of the electrons staying in these orbits. When the energy of an orbit electron increases, this electron jumps from its orbit to its upper energy orbit and this process occurs with all orbital electrons. And when this phenomenon happens with the electron of the outer orbit, then it gets freed from the attraction of the nucleus and exits.
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