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Transformer : Working Principle Types and Applications

What is a Transformer?

A transformer is a static electrical device which consists of two or more electric circuit which is linked by a common magnetic circuit. This magnetic circuit transformer electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another electric circuit as a function of magnetic flux. Transfer of electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit takes place without a change in its frequency.
sometimes people define a transformer in another way

the transformer is an electrical device that either boosts the voltage or buck the voltage level of the applied voltage without a change in the frequency of the applied voltage. But the transformer does not increase the input electrical energy.

Working Principle of Transformer?

The working of the transformer is based on the mutual induction of two magnetic coil or faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction. which states that..
When a time-varying magnetic field is linked with a conductor then there is an emf induced in the conductor.
The explanation for the transformer.
An alternating magnetic field is produced on applying an alternating current across the terminal of the primary which linked with secondary and induced an emf in the secondary..

Working on the transformer

When an alternating current is applied as an input in the primary winding of the transformer the alternating magnetic field is induced in the primary side of the transformer due to the magnetic effect of the current. 

This produced an alternating magnetic field when linked with secondary of the transformer then an alternating emf is induced across the terminal of the secondary coil. When this secondary side terminal is connected with the load an alternating current starts to flow.

Types of Transformer

The transformer is classified into four main categories according to its working, construction, power rating, and Phase.

(1) According to Working
(a) Step Up Transformer  (b)   Step Down Transformer
(2) According to Construction 
(a) Core Type Transformer  (b) Shell Type Transformer
(3) According to Phase
(a) Single Phase    (a)   Three Phase
(4) According to Rating
(a) Current Transformer   (b)  Potential Transformer

Uses/Application of transformer

  1. The transformer is used for impedance matching.
  2. The transformer is used to isolate two circuits electrically.
  3. The transformer is used to either increase or decrease alternating voltages level in electric power appliances.
  4. The transformer is used in voltmeters, ammeters, protective relay, etc.
  5. The transformer is -used to step-up low voltage in case of measurement.
  6. The transformer is used to step down the high voltage for safety.
  7.  The transformer is used in the rectifier.
  8. The transformer is used in voltage regulators, voltage stabilizers and other  power supplies 
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