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Parts of Transformer - Electrical Diary

 What is a Transformer?

A transformer is an electrical machine that is used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit. Transformation of Electrical Energy from one circuit to another circuit is based on electromagnetic induction. There are many parts of the transformer that perform different functions during the operation of the transformer. These parts are Coil, Core, Insulating material, transformer oil, Breather, Cooling tube, Conservator, explosion vent, and Buchholz Relay. Now We will discuss in brief all the parts of the transformer.

Parts of Tran sformer
Image Credit: https://circuitglobe.com/what-is-a-transformer.html


What is winding?

Winding is the part of a transformer that acts to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another. Winding is mainly made by mixing a lot of copper wire together. The type of winding used in a transformer depends on the input-output or type of transformer.

What is Core?

The core is the part of the transformer on which the winding is mounted. Its main function is to provide a path for the magnetic to flow magnetic flux generated from one circuit to another. In order to reduce the Eddy current and Hysteresis loss in the core, such a material is selected for the core that has very low reluctance. Soft iron is used for this.

What is the transformer oil?

Transformer oil is a type of organic fluid. It performs two types of functions in transformers. In transformers, this oil is mainly used for cooling but it also works cooling as well as an insulating material. Three-phase windings are fully immersed in the oil inside the transformer so that the heat generated in the winding due to load can be properly transferred.

What is a conservator?

A conservator is a tank of cylindrical shape that is attached to the upper part of the body of the transformer. The main function of the conservator in the transformer is to provide additional space for the oil. It is connected by a pipe to the internal part of the transformer. It is connected with the transformer in such a way that only half part of the conservator is filled with transformer oil. Due to the high load, a large amount of heat is generated in the winding, due to this generated heat volume of the transformer oil starts increasing. Due to this, some part of the transformer oil comes in a conservator. When the transformer becomes cold it comes back into the transformer.

What is insulating material?

Insulating materials such as paper cardboard, etc., are used to separate the transformer core along with the primary and secondary winding of the transformer. Since the high-quality copper wire is used in the transformer to reduce the amount of copper wire The volume of winding is very low, which is required. When the low volume winding is tightened, it turns. The insulating material is used on the side of it to prevent winding from turning.

What is Breather?

Breather acts like a nose in a transformer. It is a small cylindrical box filled with a substance called silica gel. Its main function is to eliminate the water vapor from the air flowing in the transformer. The silica gel placed in it absorbs the vapor particles present in the air. If the particles of vapor present in the air are not stopped from flowing, it can cause problems related to insulation by chemical reaction with oil.

What is a Tap Changer?

Tap Changer is used to balance the voltage changes between the terminals of the transformer. The transformer has two types of Tap Changer.

(1.) On load tap changer

(2.) Off load tap changer

What is Buchholz Relay?

It is a type of transformer oil tank connected by a pipe to the main conservator tank. Its main function is to detect or senses the fault in the transformer. It senses the gas coming out of the paraffin due to the fault in the internal part of the transformer and turns off the main supply or turns on the emergency alarm to protect the transformer in an emergency.

What is a cooling tube?

As the name itself suggests, it performs the function of cooling in transformers. When the transformer is under load, a large amount of heat is produced in its winding, which makes the oil hot. If the proper cooling system is not provided in the transformer, the transformer may catch fire. Cooling tubes are used to cool the transformer.

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